RewriteCond %{HTTPS_HOST}^mathsguruji\.info[NC] RewriteRule(.*)https://www.mathsguruji.info/$1 [L,R=301] Source of Ancient Indian History

Source of Ancient Indian History


Source of Ancient Indian History

Source of Ancient Indian History

There are many difficulties in writing the history of ancient India because the significance of the accounts of physical events in the sources of ancient Indian history has not been identified separately. Literature of ancient India consists of many topics including narrative, theology, economics and dynasty. Indian perspective has always been spiritual. Yet we have enough resources to know history. We have the world's largest literature, which is our cultural heritage. In the subsequent years many of our literary materials were destroyed by the invaders.


There is so much of content in Indian history that there is no lack of inspiration, there is no lack of precursors, counter-arguments and extravagance in the ocean. By making them the medium of history and the means of knowing history, any life-time can explore. Some poetic, but in reality, can be compared to the inferior Indus of the written material of ancient times and the beads of historical events. There are no beads at every place in the sea and not all beads are valuable too. Similarly ancient Indian texts contain ancient history. The works of ancient Indian artists are also not less, which can lead to our ancient history. Excellent examples of sculpture, painting, building-art and other fine arts are still a reminder of our ancient civilization and culture in our ruin.

There are only two ways in the history of any country - first the works of literary works and second is the works of different artists. The source of indian history can also be divided into these two parts - the literary and archaeological aspects.

Literary materials have been divided for convenience-
1. Religious literature 
2. Secular literature


There are two types of religious literature:
* Brahman Granth 
* Abrahman Granth (Buddhist and Jain Grant)


Brahman granth have also been divided into two parts - Shruti and Smruti. Under the Shruti, four Vedas, Brahmins and Upanishads are counted and in Smruti there are two epic Ramayana and Mahabharata, Puranas and smruties.

Similarly, secular literature is of five types-
1. Historic
2. Semi historical
3. Historic Foreign descriptions
4. Biographies
5.Imagery and fiction literature (pure literature)


Literary Materials

1. Religious literature,
2. Brahman Granth

Veda

Vedas are the oldest texts of Aryans. Due to ancientness and greatness, they are considered to be God-given and not man-made. Vedas are four- Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda. The utility of the four Vedas is partly desirable in history-exploration, but Rigveda, which is the oldest, has proved to be more beneficial in this subject. In ancient times, how and how much Arya was able to propagate in India, their struggles from Anaryas are received, and the praise of Saptasindhu is received only by Rigveda. In the absence of this Adi Granth, it would have been a difficult task to obtain a clear knowledge of the expansion of Aryans.



Brahman


The prose critics of Vedic Mantras and Codes are called Brahmins. Ancient Brahmins, Atterae, panchvish, Sathpath, Taittariya etc. are very important. The study of atterae gets the knowledge of coronation and names of some ancient anointed kings. Their information can be made historically with the help of other materials.  Knowledge of the well-known Arya Raja Parikshhit and Indian history till much later becomes very clear by Brahmins.

Upanishad

In the Upanishads, the brihadaranyak, the Chhandogy is more ancient. These granths can be helped to know the before  history of Bimbisar. Parikshith, his son Janmajaya and later kings are mentioned in the Upanishads, which can be accepted by them that their composition may have been done some time before and after Bimbisar. In fact, from the combined study of Brahmins and Upanishads, from the Parikshith itself to the history of Bimbisar, something can be thought of. Considering the philosophical philosophies of the Upanishads, this claim can be said that the philosophy of ancient Aryans was far beyond the philosophy of other civilized countries. The complete knowledge of the spiritual development of ancient Aryans is attained only by the Upanishads. This is a living example of religious status, meditation and moral development of ancient times. This makes the greatness of the Vedas and Brahmins more powerful.

Vedang


For the purpose of Vedic studies, the branches of the specialty are born which are known as Vedanga. Six Vdangas have been mentioned in the Mundak Upanishad - education, art, grammar, Nirukta, Chhandshastra and astrology. Vedic granth were made simple and inanimate only by six branches of Vedanga. Further, there were some changes in the reading and in this way their separate classes were established under the Vedicastrological the following branches. Sources of these sections were formed in the form of text books. Kalpasutras were divided into four parts. The sources related to the Mahayaguns is called srot sutra, the sources related to the  grih sanskar is called Griya Sutra , and the sources related to the , Dharma or Rules is called dharm sutra, the sources related to the altar and the measurement of havanakundas are called Shulvasutra. This broad area of ​​Vedanga is the only director of the religious state. In these sutras, knowledge of social status is also attained. But the difficulty is that it looks like a very detailed and unfathomable ocean that it is not easy to find historical facts from these. The time ranges from Rig Veda to the creation of sutras is approximately 2 thousand BC to Fifth century BC Until it is considered. The history of this long period is published from this Vedic literature.

Epic

After Vedic literature, the two pillars of Indian literature have an Ramayana and Mahabharata. In fact, in their entire religious literature, they keep their high positions. Lots of credit can be given to these epics as much as possible to bring Indian history into greater light. The author of Ramayana, Mahakavi Valmiki has made the political, social and religious position of the contemporary India understandable by writing the life-character of Maryada-Purushottam Ram.
The second epic is the Mahabharata. The originator of the original Mahabharata is considered as Vyasa Muni. Mahabharata has three editions of Jai, Bharat and Mahabharata. The present form of the Mahabharata can be considered as a repository of ancient history fairytale, stories and teachings. Mahabharata puts enough light on the social and religious situation of ancient India. Some details of political circumstances have also been given in this, but unfortunately, there is a complete lack of history according to the order. The inclusion of some myths also leads to difficulties in exploring historical facts.

Mythology

After the epic, the place of mythology comes. The number of myths is 18. The credit of the creation of the Puranas is given to Sutleomahrishna or their son Ugrashrava.
                    The abundant material of ancient history is present. They introduce many important events related to the history of ancient times to the Gupta period, for whose authenticity we have to resort to other evidence. Historians have been completely dissatisfied with the Puranas that they are not dated, as well as the inclusion of fictional incidents, stories and fiction has been done in these mythologies.

Smruti

Smruti also have special significance in the context of historical utility in the Brahmin texts. Smruti of Manu, Vishnu, Yagnavalkya, Narada, Brihaspati, Parashar etc are notable especially. It is well known in the name of theology. In all the Smritiyon, Varnashrama Dharma, Raja's duty and Shraddha and atonement etc. has been highlighted. Thus, as much as these smritiyon are written on social and religious topics, it is probably not in any other scripture.

Abrahman Granth

The literature that Gautam Buddha's followers created, is also historical, while being their objective is religious. Contents of Indian History There is a lot in it. Tripitik is more important in Buddhist granths. Sutt, Vinay and Abhidhamma are all together called Triptikas. Sutta has dirgha, majjim, sanyukt, aaguntur, and khuddak five other bodies. All these bodies have Buddhist principles and stories. The historical significance of the theories is very much, because in these studies of Buddhism, they give a lot of contribution.  Abhidhamma has seven collections. Among them, philosophy has been discussed. The importance of these Granth is considerable to the study of  Buddhist religion and the study of the social and religious conditions.
The biggest feature of Tripticists is that they present complete details of the organization of Buddhist unions. At the same time, they also understand the political situation.

Jatak-

Jatak is in second place in Buddhist Granths. Their number is approximately 549. The stories of God Buddha's ancestors are stored in the Jatak's. Although their views are completely religious; But their studies have enough focused on social and economic condition. They put enough light on the cultural and religious areas. Some Jatak's also get the impression of the political conditions of Buddhist and before. Buddhist India.

Deepwans, Mahavans-

After Triptikas and jatak's two Pali epics named Deepwans and Mahavans are the most important. These two texts prove to be more helpful in studying the history of the Maurya-Empire, but it is necessary to work with logic and discretion while acknowledging their information.
Milindapheno- This is the other book in pali  language. This book contains the conversation of Greek King Milind or Minendar and Buddhist monk Nagesen. In addition to the social and religious stages of this book, there is also a complete description of the financial condition. The foreign trade of India has been depicted in it. The relevant details of the political situation of that era are also found in this book.

Divya Vedan - 

This book of Sanskrit prose holds its historical significance. There is much more information about Ashok and his successors.

Manjushree Mulkalp - 

this is also the text of Sanskrit. It has been mentioned in the middle of the political events of the Mauryan and the political events of the Harsh. This book also holds great importance from historical perspective.

Jain Granth -

 Like the Buddhist texts, Jain Granth is also completely religious. The Parishisht Parv in these texts is particularly important. Bhadra Bahucharitra is the second important Jain granth. With this book, there is some light on the life of Chandragupta Maurya, along with Jnanacharya Bhadrabahu. Jain literature also contains some of the texts which have not been translated into other languages, so that many historical materials can not be obtained; However, the contents of Kalpasutra, which can be obtained, is useful for its usefulness.

Secular literature

The secular literature is also a very important source of ancient Indian history. The secular literature is of five types-
1. Historical, 
2. semi-historical, 
3. foreign explanations 
4. Biography
5. fiction and literature (pure literature).


Historical texts

Under this, there are descriptions of kings and their heirs, economic and social conditions besides governance and other political situations. The real meaning of the historical word here is from the kings and their rituals. Only those texts that highlight these words have been given this term. Rajatarangini, Economics of Kautilya, Shukraniti Saar, Kamandikiya Nitisaar, etc. are importants.

Semi-historical

The texts which have been mentioned in this class; The only thing they should say about them is that the purpose of their writers was not historical though, but the path following which the text is composed is parallel to the history. Therefore, these texts reflect the image of historical events. In these semi-historical texts, Ashtadhyayini of Panini , Margsanhita, Mahabhashy of Patanjali, the Malvikagnimitrum of Kalidas and the mudrarakchhas of Visakhdutt are very important.

Foreign descriptions

In addition to Indian content, some non-indigenous material is available in our history, thereby realizing the many important historical facts. These materials are received by enthusiasts, pilgrims and tourists and foreign historians and hence they are called foreign descriptions. Importance of foreign details are valid in Indian history . In fact, these foreign details that fulfill the shortage of Indian goods are the same. Where Hindus, Jains and Buddhist texts become silent, these foreign details can give some light to the historian.

One thing in relation to foreign details is that in the beginning it has some limitations. Greek, Roman, Chinese, Tibetan etc. were often unaware of the Indian tradition. Many of them did not have the knowledge of our language. In such a situation, some misconceptions in their compositions or descriptions are in nature. Terius can give a table of strange customs, Phahyan and Hwangsang could have seen Buddhist Vihar in every temple. However, despite these limitations, we can not reduce the importance of the details of foreigners. While mentioning the means of Indian history, we give foreign details more importance to the fact that some of them have come as ambassadors, which are often responsible activities. The passion and enthusiasm of independent tourists has also been commendable.

Biographies

Biographies is important in literary materials. If these biographies are called prashasti-poetry, it would not be unreasonable because their writers have utilized their writings in praise of their patron kings. The view of those writers was completely literary. In fact, on the occasion of creation of literature, he took shelter in the form of kings. Because of his literary talent he is honored till date. There is a lot of these biographers or singers, but only a few of them provide historical material. In the literary texts, those who have metaphors, such as the flute, the ornaments like the ornaments and the speeches of superlative, are all in these biographies. Literature of these texts only hurts their historicity.

Harshacharit

In bio- literature historical place of Harshacharit is very high. This poetic Sanskrit prose was composed by Sanskrit Gadacharya Banabhatta in about 620 AD. Banabhatta lived in The King  Harsha court. In addition to Harshacharit, the introduction of his unique talent was also given in his other book, Kadambari; But the importance of Kadambari is not in providing historical material. Banabhatt written his great king Harsh biography in  Harshcharit, whose significance is universally valid. The full details of Harsha's early life and his dignitaries can be obtained from Harshacharitra.

Pure literature

Our intentions from pure literature are from literary texts which have been composed by the writer of the artistic perspective. The compositions of this class are composed by being conquered by self-satisfaction or any other motivation. From these texts, one part of history-civilization and culture-is luminous. With pure literary texts, we get the sense of the prevailing language, literature, the interest of the people or the social status in short. Among these texts, three plays of Harsh-Naganand, Ratnawali and Priyadarshika are notable. These plays have a slight light on the seventh century India. Some of Kalidas's plays can also be calculated in the same classical texts. In the seventh or eighth century after the Buddhist castes, a flood came again in the composition of stories. In these texts, Vaishali Brihatkatha of Gunadhy (which has been lost, but many authors have been mentioned), Brihatkatha of Buddha Swami,  Brihatkatha Manjari of chhemendra, and Somadev's Kathasaritsagar special mention.

Archaeological Source of Ancient Indian History

The significance of the history of archaeological materials is increasing day by day. This is the reason why this topic has become the subject of an independent study today. The contributions of these materials in determining a suspicious landmark in Indian history have been laudable. It helps in two ways, as an exponent, that is, by presenting the new instrument of information, and second is confirming the unknown facts. the important material can be divided into three parts to facilitate the study.

Records - 

In relation to utility of records, only to say that where every kind of instrument falls loose, there can be some history from these records only. These records are very useful to know the political stage of ancient India. Whatever the ancient people have written on rock, copper and other metals, it is indelible. Generally, there can not be prognosis as in literary content. The period of records from the particular language becomes clear too. Some records have been very helpful in establishing the historical chain.

                         Records have been practiced since the time of Emperor Ashoka or even before that in the era, this can be a matter of controversy, but there is no doubt that the records of the times of Ashoka and after Ashoka is remarkable because it is very important source of indian ancient history. Ashoka engraved his kingdom commands and announcements on pillars and rocks. It has enough light on Ashoka's religion and King's ideal. It also gives us knowledge of the boundaries of his state. The records of Ashoka are in Brahmi and Kharoshthi script. In the records of Ashoka after which some of the famous names are known, Harishan or Prayag prashasti is particularly notable. Prayag prashasti is the only records which gives complete light on , the great emperor of the Gupta Dynasty, Samudragupta Digvijay and his personality. Similarly, the work of Chandragupta Vikramaditya is mentioned on the Iron pillar of Delhi, and it is known from this that he crossed the Indus River and conquered the prevailing country. We have received many records regarding acceptance of grants, which are very helpful in the study of classification of society. A record has been received on the walls of a cave near Cuttack in Orissa, which is called Hathigumfa Records. It puts new light on successful King of Kalinga,  Kharawal's life and his successes. Gwalior's praise is very important as it mentions the successes of the Pratihar King Bhoj.
                            
                            Apart from innumerable Indian articles, some foreign articles have also been received which give great light to our history. Among them, in the articles written in Bogajkoi in Asia Minor, Vedic deities are mentioned. The realization of Aryan infection is from this record. From the records of Persepolas and Naksherustam (Iran), the relation between ancient India and Iran is realized.

                       The records are engraved in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Mixed, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada etc. The study of these various categories of records not only involves information about a particular king, but on the basis of their language, the popularity or power of the language is revealed. At the same time, there is also an understanding of the progress of the literary style and literature. These records are more important in highlighting different parts of the art. The donations make sense of state boundaries. The address of the land and related agreement between the king and the people also comes from these records.

Ancient monument

The ruins of ancient civilization, the art of ancient human has been achieved by excavation today and they have full light on our history. It is difficult to say how many things can come under the ancient monument. In fact, except for the remaining archeology-related sections (i.e. record, currency and futuristic objects), whatever is the subject of art or above art or an object which we can remember from our ancient history , He will come in the ancient monument. The importance of ancient monuments is not so much in knowing political history, because it was difficult to mention political events. But, sometimes it is more helpful to tell the names of the kings, their lineage as well as their estimated time on the basis of their technique. Archaeologists have to face difficulty in the study of ancient monuments, but not on any other evidence from the study on the aspect of civilization and culture on which aspect lightens. Literary content can be described in the context of a particular period of special art, but its winning example is only found in the form of ancient monuments. Various types of buildings, Rajaprasad, public hall, house of public, Vihar, monastery, Chaitya, Stupa, Samadhi etc. many objects publish our past history in their original form or in the ruinous form. In their ordinary form, it is said about their art, but with their special study we can get the knowledge of the religious status.

                         In lighting up ancient monuments, the archaeological department has worked with more patience and courage. As a result of which excavations have occurred in Mohanjoddo, Harappa, Taxshila, Mathura, Kosal, Sarnath, Kasia, Pataliputra, Nalanda, Rajgiri, Sanchi, Bharhut, Lakshmeshwar, even, Banwasi, Pathalkal, Chittaladurga, Talkad, Heleved, Maski etc. Knowledge of some dark ages has been received. Mohejodaro-Harappa excavations have added a new paragraph of history. This has made the realization of an entirely new civilization. Excavation has pushed our cultural history back thousands of years back. Its highest place in the country's monuments. With the ruins here, we come to the memory of the past culture which was challenging the other civilizations of the world.

                         In other countries other than India, there are some such memorials which have received light on the history of ancient India. These monuments are notable in ancient monuments received in Java, Kamboj, Malaya, Siam, Cochin China, Vernia, Cambay etc. In Java, Shiva temple of Donda Plateau, Central Java Borobodar and Brambanam deities know that in the ancient Indian colonization too there was a strong interest in establishment. In the same way, ancient monuments have been available in Angkorwat and Anjakoralabha, which have an understanding of Indian colonial spread and the art of Indians. The existence of shells, chakras, verse and trident etc. in the ruins of a place called Tukmus in Java has been certified. This clearly shows that Hinduism was broadcasted to Java and followers of this religion lived there in sufficient number. Similarly, in Malaya Sun-Gei-Vatu, there was a temple and some statues of statues found.

The currencies

 The archaeological materials that hold their special significance in the means of obtaining historical information, the position of the currencies is quite high. The main reasons for the greatness of the currencies in this region are that they are fair, that is, in favor of any communal-specific or a particular opinion, there is no editable fact. These are completely political (except for the fake coins only). Any information that can be conveyed to them can be quite trusted. Their second feature is that they admonish the lineage of kings. Date and named currencies are of great importance in this area. This makes us realize the confused dates of history. In whatever currencies, the dates have not been given, they are not of less significance, because on the basis of their technique their determination of time is done after some investigation. Another feature of the currencies is that it acquires some knowledge of the empire-expansion of kings, but in the determination of empire-expansion on the basis of the realization of the currencies, it has to be done with great care; Because only by receiving the currencies, it can not be said decently that till that place. Such is the possession of the emperor.There may be some other economic reasons for this. In this way we see that there is a lot of light on the political situation of the country through currencies.

                              Currencies also put some light on the economic situation in addition to the political situation. On the basis of their metals, we strive to acquire knowledge of the economic condition, but it can not be said for sure that the abundance of exquisite metal made currencies means that the society was wealthy and with the currency of the metals of the lowest, there is an understanding of the economic downturn. In fact, the superiority of metals in currencies is based on the prosperity of the treasury and dependent on the interest and practice of some running emperor.

                            There is also another importance of the currency. They also attract attention towards the emperor-specific religion and its interest. From signs inscribed on the currencies we know that such a king was a follower of such religion; But there are some examples that different religious icons are engraved on the same currency. We can keep Kanishka currencies in the same category. Nevertheless, most of the currencies that have a special religious symbol engraved properly for the kings' religion. The realization of the interest of kings is exactly what these currencies are. If on the psychological basis, the size-type of currencies, the animal-bird and weapon that is engraved on them, can be sufficient knowledge of that king's personal life.

                          Only on the basis of Samudragupta's currencies, we can definitely say that he was a follower of Brahmin religion. On the basis of the harp engraved on his currencies, we declare him a lover of music.

Conclusion

Here we have mentioned the history of ancient Indians and the sources of ancient Indian history. The ancient Indians had a keen interest in the history, but this history is not available in a sequential form like the present. While describing religion, religious campaigners have given information about important events. Archaeological evidence contains Records, monuments and currencies, which gives us the knowledge of ancient history. In ancient times, there was a tradition of inscribed the record. It was written on special occasions. Apart from this, we also get information about the living conditions of the ancient monuments. Currencies also give important information. The sentences written on them reflect the political, religious and economic status of ancient India. History can be known only by literary and archaeological means.
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