RewriteCond %{HTTPS_HOST}^mathsguruji\.info[NC] RewriteRule(.*)https://www.mathsguruji.info/$1 [L,R=301] Prehistoric Era of Indian History

Prehistoric Era of Indian History



Prehistoric Era


Prehistoric Era

The history of human civilization is literally a history of human development. It is not possible to say when and how the human being descended on earth, even today in this definite and unquestioned form. This question remained inconvenient for long periods of superstitions and imagination. In the modern era, scientific approaches and scientific inventions have contributed in the opening of the mysteries of human origin and evolution like the opening of other mysteries of nature. As a result of this, a detailed discussion of the emergence and development of human beings can be presented today. The name of the epochal interpretation of the gradual development of human civilization is history. The history of human civilization spreads in the distant past. The period of history of human civilization in which the relation between our knowledge is basically based on archaeological evidence is called prehistoric period. The prehistoric words imply a time when the manifestation of human form came with the arrival of animals and before the advent of the historical period. In this period man was completely unfamiliar with writing. Therefore, historians have also called it a famine period. Historical period refers to the time of human history, for which we have the definitive evidence of that era available for study. There is no contemporary parity in prehistoric and historical periods. 90% of human history comes under prehistoric time, the remaining 10% is under historical period. Keeping this fact in mind, we can divide the human civilization of prehistoric times into three important parts-

1. Prehistoric time- 

The era of which was not familiar with any type of script or writing art is called prehistoric time. From human origin to about 3,000 B.C., it comes under. Stone Age and Copper Stone Age is studied under this (Period from the beginning of human history to about 3000 BC) Part of history, which is available only for archaeological objects, is called prehistoric period.


2. Early historical period- 

The period in which man was familiar with some type of script but the script has not yet been read half the historical period. Study of Harappan civilization and Vedic civilization is done under this. (3000 BC to 600 BC) Indus and Vedic civilization relates to this period. Both archaeological and literary evidence is available for its study, but archaeological evidence can only be used. The exception is Vedic literature.

3. Historical period- 

The period in which the human was familiar with some type of script and the script has been read there, ie, the activities of human beings that we receive written descriptions and the details have been read, it is called history. Studies from the 5th Century BC to the present are done under this (period after 600 BC) There are three types of evidence available in the history of archaeological, literary and foreigners to study this period.

 Prehistoric time - it can be divided into three parts-

Palaeolithic period - from 5 million BC to till 10 thousand BC.

Mid-Term Period - 10 thousand to 6 thousand BC till.

Neolithic period - After 6 thousand BC.

Palaeolithic period


The Paleolithic civilization of India is developed from Pleistocene or the Ice Age. During the Pleistocene period, much of the surface of the Earth's  was covered with snow sheets, mainly at higher altitudes. The planet started to cool down 10 million years ago. The large glaciers in the polar regions came down from the vulnerable velocity which reached latitude below 45 ° or less. Near the equator, its effects fell on the earth and various organisms.



                          The Indian Palaeolithic Age is divided into three phases, depending on the nature of stone tools used by humans and changes in climate. The first stage is called the early or lower Palaeolithic Age. Its period is approximately 5 lakh BC to 50 thousand BC Until it is considered. The second period is the Middle Paleolithic age. Its period is approximately 50 thousand BC to 40 thousand BC Is set up. The third period was the Upper Palaeolithic era whose period was 40 thousand BC to 10 thousand BC Remained till

Lower Paleolithic Age

Most of this has passed through the Ice Age. Important tools of this era are: hand axe, cleaver and chopper. At this time the human was not settled in the Ganga and Yamuna plains and the Kachari plains of the Indus.

                        Devices of pre-stone age found in different parts of India are divided into two major parts - Chapar Chaping Pebul culture and hand  axe culture. Chapar is a large sized device that is made from pebul. Those pieces of stone whose sides are smooth and flat due to the flow of water, are called pabul. There were two types of instrument-making methods in the following Lower Paleolithic Age stone-core method and fracture method. The fractal separation made by the trauma of a stone piece and its inner part is called the core.

                          The following archaeological sites are available in almost all areas of the Indian subcontinent. Among them, the valley of Assam is also included. An important lower Paleolithic archaeological site is found in the valley of Sohan (Pakistan). It is known as Sohan culture. Important places of this era are the Sohan valley, the Bellan valley, Adamgad, Bhimbetka, Navasa etc. Many places have been received in the Kashmir and Thar Deserts, but the following Paleolithic age tools have not been found in Kashmir as there was excessive freezing in Kashmir in the Himalayan era. It was the important lower Paleolithic archaeological site to the Belan Valley near Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh. Likewise, in the desert areas of Rajasthan, Didwana, Bhimbetka near Bhopal, Narsinghpur near Narmada, Nevas near the Prabra river in Maharashtra, which is also located near Godavari river. Andhra Pradesh's Giddalur and Karimpuri are important places. Apart from these, many places in Madras and Karnataka have also come to light. People of this age used quartzite stones. These people fall under the category of hunter and food collector. In this period they used to kill big animals.

Middle Paleolithic period

The important feature of this period was the change in raw materials being used. Quartzite was the major raw material during the Palaeolithic period, whereas in the Middle Paleolithic period, Jasper, Chart etc. used to be in the form of major raw materials. In this era, the primacy of the crude devices disappeared while the spread of scales manufacturing increased. The sites of the Middle Paleolithic period are often scattered throughout the country. However, there are not enough sites in the north-west region that have been received in the peninsular region. The main reason for this is lack of suitable raw materials in Punjab. Navas (on the banks of river Godavari) is the site of culture of Middle Paleolithic culture. H.D . Sankaliya has declared it the place of destination. In this time we get chopper primacy of cutting tools. The devices found in this period are 'Chapar', 'Blade', Amplifier, 'Vyurin', Chandrik, 'Scrapper' and 'Chhidrak' etc.


Upper paleolithic period

Humidity decreased in this period. The expansion of this state remained with the last state of the glacier when the climate became relatively hot. The following characteristics of this period are:
  • In it the main material for making the equipment was a tall macro level panel.
  • The efficiency of scarlet and scraper devices increased in the instruments of this era.
  • The role of bone devices in this period also became important.
  • In this period, art was developed in both carving and painting forms. In Bhimbetka situated in the Vindhya region, the painting of different periods can be seen. In the first period, the painting of the North Palaeolithic period used green and dark red color.



 Sohan river valley-  


Sohan river valley - in front of the Shivalik, the lower paleolithic tools have been obtained. Here, excavation started under the leadership of D. Terra and Patterson of the Yale Cambridge expedition between 1931-32, the equipment obtained from here was made from Flex technology. In India, the oldest manuscripts, castes, blocks have been obtained from this region. Here's the evidence of the pane industry.

Bhimbetka- 


This hill situated in Rayan district of Madhya Pradesh provides evidence of the cave of man. In the 500 cave paintings received from here, 5 cave diagrams of Palaeolithic period and the rest of the pictures are from the medieval period. Mr. Wokankar is credited with bringing the light of these cave paintings to light. Bhimbetka has got some blue-colored stones. According to Wakkenkar sir, paint was prepared by them for painting.

Ethanora -


 Located in the Narmada valley area, this site is located in Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh. This is the Upper Palaeolithic site which was discovered in 1987. From this site, the first human scalp has been received in the Indian subcontinent, which is related to the Homo erectus group. Earlier, there was no residue of palaeolithic man anywhere in the Indian subcontinent. Here two species of elephants have also been obtained as animals fossils.

Belanghati area-


 44 areas of stone age have been discovered in the area of ​​Belanghati in Mirzapur and its adjacent areas of Uttar Pradesh. This is the only region of the Indian subcontinent where evidence of the three phases is found. From here the gradual development of the Stone Age can be told.
Lonhandabad area - This area is an upper paleolithic site. 30,000 BC from here The statue has been received. There is a dispute over whether this idol is or device. It is currently considered a tool.
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