RewriteCond %{HTTPS_HOST}^mathsguruji\.info[NC] RewriteRule(.*)https://www.mathsguruji.info/$1 [L,R=301] Neolithic Period in Indian History

Neolithic Period in Indian History

Neolithic Period


Neolithic Period

The basic element of this period is the development of knowledge of food production and domestication of animals. The term Neolithic was first used by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 AD. The following important features of Neolithic period are the beginning of agricultural work, the development of animal husbandry, the formation of frayed and polished instruments of stone tools and the beginning of the village community.

In the world-class context Neolithic era begins about 9000 BC but in India, initial evidence of agriculture from Mehergarh of Balochistan is available. It is approximately 7000 B.C. old. It was often believed that the presence of handmade ceramics was the first indispensable feature of food production settlements, but new research has proved that in many areas, there is no evidence of ceramic at the cereal food producing sites. They are called as mitochondria pollen sites. In the same way till recently it was thought that agriculture and animal husbandry were first introduced in West Asia and from there it was spread through other areas of the world by Diffusion. But now this thought has been changed and it seems like it has developed in different areas in its independent form.

The earliest evidence of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent is found in Neolithic period, but there is no evidence of the specific technique of agriculture here. Here, two techniques were cultivated, which started from Africa first. Wheat and barley fall in the imported category, where as ragi and paddy are in the exported category. Similarly, animal husbandry became the basis of Neolithic economy. There is evidence of cargo animals like horse, donkey, mule, from Nagarjunkonda.


Based on the axes brought by the people of Neolithic age, three parts of the settlements were determined-
1. North-west, 
2. North-east, 
3. Southwest

North-west 

Kashmir is an important Neolithic site. Burj Hohum and Cave Road are two important places in Kashmir. The important features of Kashmir's sites are the following: the use of different types of cottage, diversity of soils, different tools of stone and bones, and lack of microlith instruments.
Evidence of residence under the ground is found in Burj Hohom. The people here used to hunt and catch fish, but probably the people were also familiar with agriculture. The most important evidence received from here is - buried a pet dog with the body of  owner. Mehrgarh is also an important Neolithic site in the north west. Here are two varieties of wheat and three varieties of barley. The people here probably also used to produce dates. The people here lived in a rectangular house of raw bricks.

                  Saraykhola was an important place in Swat valley in the northwest. Some of the important Neolithic sites in the Belanaghati are: Koldihawa, Chaupanimando and Mahagra. The name of this species of wild and paddy from Koldihawa was named Arija Seriva. Evidence of both types of rice is found in agriculture. Their period is 6000 B.C. to 5000 BC has been determined. In the same way, the ancient evidence of the use of pottery in the world has been found from Chaupani Mando. Some important Neolithic sites have also been found in the Central Ganga Valley, which are as follows - Chirand (Chhapra), Chaichar, Senuar, Taradih etc. Similarly, in East India, some Neolithic sites have been found in the hills of Assam, Meghalaya and Garo. Some of the Neolithic sites in South India are: Masci, Brahmagiri, Hullur, Kodakkal, Pikilihal, Sengenkalan, Tekalkotta and Karnataka in Tamilnadu, in the areas of Piyayampalli and in Andhra Pradesh.

Mehergarh - 

Three cultural reasons for the excavation of this site located in present day Pakistan, this place is called Neolithic Mehergarh. It was the oldest farming settlement of the Indian subcontinent and from 6000 BC. Approximately evidence of agriculture has been received from here. Here we have evidence of the cultivation of wheat, barley and lentil.

Koldihawa-

Kaldihwa located in the Bellanghati area. The world's oldest pottery from 7th century BC, was found from Mando . 

Mahagarha

This site located in the Balanghati area provides clear evidence of animal husbandry. From here there is a huge fence of animals which has three very large doors and 28 pillars. There must be more than twenty animals bundling in it.

Chirand

It is located in Chhapra district of Bihar, this site is associated with Neolithic and third phase of Tamarpathic culture. It has been dated (2500-1400 BC). It is similar to Burj Hom in terms of period and bone-tool. From here tools made of stone and animal horns. It was a great farming place where evidence of wheat, barley and paddy cultivation was found.

Deogali Heading- 

This site is located in Meghalaya. From here and from other places in Meghalaya, there is a signal to make efforts to make houses at Saruturu and Mike Dola and from Assam. From here the oldest evidence of transforming agriculture has been found. This was the beginning of farming in sloping places.

Brazagiri -

 Excavation at this place started under the leadership of Martimer Wheeler in 1947. This site is associated with three cultural phases - Neolithic period, Middle stone period and Andhra-Satavahana phase. 1500 BC from here The earliest evidence of cultivation of ragi and kulthi has been obtained. Apart from this, there has been evidence of the Kalash entombment as well that the little child was buried in or near the residential place.

Utnur and Payyampalli -

Utnur is located in Andhra Pradesh and Payyampalli, in Tamil Nadu. From both the places  the first evidence of construction of the fabric and the use of the fabric has been obtained . Here's a bone made needle was found that was useful in making garments.

Nagarjunkonda - 

Nagarjunkonda is the only place in Andhra Pradesh, from where trough residence found except  Burjoram and Guddkakal. This place was also contemporary of Brahmagiri (1500 BC) and at this time ragi and kulti were cultivated here. Like Brahmagiri, here too, a small child has found evidence of burying a residential site or near it. From here there is also evidence of cargo animals such as horse, mule.

The first crop used in South India was ragi. Agriculture was a minor in Neolithic period. Khanti and spade were used in agricultural equipments during Neolithic period.

The agricultural work was fully established during the Tamrpashan period. Stone tools were used in both tamarpashan age and  in the Indus Valley civilization. 
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