RewriteCond %{HTTPS_HOST}^mathsguruji\.info[NC] RewriteRule(.*)https://www.mathsguruji.info/$1 [L,R=301] Chalcolithic Age of Indian History

Chalcolithic Age of Indian History

Chalcolithic Age

Chalcolithic Age - 2000 BC to 500 BC

In relation to Chalcolithic age, we get some information only from the distractions. From the point of view of the facility of study, we can divide the Chalcolithic age sites into two parts-

  • Later Harappan sites, which were the only Chalcolithic in their nature. 
  • Other Chalcolithic age Cultures

Apart from this, there are some other cultures such as the painted gray soil culture and northern black-colored mud culture. After the fall of the Indus Civilization, certain cultures came into existence in the Indian subcontinent. After the fall of Indus Civilization, the order of the city planning, the use of paved bricks, writing art, standard measurement and weaving system, came of, but it was probably a positive effect, the spread of metal technology in rural areas. After the decline of the Indus Civilization, some of the copper cultures came into being which can see the effect of Indus Civilization. They are known as the later Harappan culture. Under this culture, some important cultures are: - Zookar culture in Sindh, Cemetery 'H' culture in Punjab and Wahalpur, Red-Brightly Soil Culture in Gujarat, Garric Soil Culture in Ganga-Yamuna Doab area.


Chalcolithic Age Agricultural Culture

There must have been some improvement in the social life of the people of the metallic era in the future. Under this culture, the use of copper and stone tools was used simultaneously. Although  low quality of bronze was also used in limited manner. Some copper age cultures was established in South east Rajasthan, western part of Madhya Pradesh and western Maharashtra. Apart from this, some settlements were also established in Eastern India and Southern India. These copper age cultures had the following important features:

  • The use of painted utensils which were mainly painted red with black colors
  • Highly developed industry of blades and stones 

Ahar or Banas culture was developed in South East Rajasthan. It was developed in the valley of Banas. Its format venue was Ahar. Although Gilud is also associated with this. Evidence of paved bricks found from gilud, which is approximately 1500 BC. We do not get the miniature equipment from the Ahar, only copper equipment is available. Ahar has also been called Tamarvati. Houses built in Ahar are found in stone instead of wood and raw clay. The period of this culture is from 2400 to 1400 BC.

Malwa culture was developed in West Madhya Pradesh. Earlier, the Kaystha culture had also been developed. Its period dates from 2000 B.C. to 1800 BC While Malwa was between 1700 to 1200 BC. The original area of ​​Malwa culture is Malwa, Kayastha and Aran. Malwa culture is known for its excellence of Pottery. Further spread of Malwa culture also happened in the Maharashtra region.

In Tapti river valley (2000-1800 BC) swalda and Zorwa culture in Maharashtra was developed. The main area of ​​the Zorwa culture was the Zorwa, Nevasa, Allahabad, Inamgaon, Prakash, Nasik and Chandoli etc. Its period is 1400 B.C. To 700 B.C. Until it is considered. The texture of houses under the Zorwa culture was square, rectangular and circular. The walls were made by mixing clay or mud mortar. There are four items of copper obtained in Daimabad- chariot man, bull, rhinoceros and elephant. The biggest site of the Jorwa culture is the Daimabad. Here are the levels of the four cultures received. The largest exquisite rural area is Navdatoli. The number of highest crops received from Navdatoli.


Chalcolithic Age Places

Mehargarh-

It is very important Chalcolithic age place. Evidence of three cultures has been received from Mehargarh- Neolithic, Quetta culture, Harappa and Harappa-style culture. From here, the earliest evidence of cotton cultivation has been received, which is of the Aravarium Gossipium variety. It has broken the notion of import of cotton. It is believed that Harappas had received cotton information from Mehargarh itself. Here, evidence of the use of Larjwart Mani was found in the former Harappan period.

Metthi (Eastern Balochistan) - 

This  Chalcolithic age place is situated in Pakistan. It is an important place of Kulli-Nal culture. From here, found a information of making chin and mirror by smelting the copper. There is evidence of burial and cremation, which is its unique feature. Apart from this, evidence has also been received from the place of Kalash Burial.

Amri-Amri

This 
Chalcolithic age place is also located in Pakistan-Sindh region. It was first discovered by Cassal and then R. G. Majumdar and N. G. Majumdar was studied . 

Ranadhundai

Located in Zob Lorlai area of ​​Gomalghati in Pakistan, the pottery received from this place have been painted like Harappa. The pottery received from here indicates that they were constructed by adding body texture. Here is a statue of humble bull like Harappa received. Gold pin has also been received from here, which has not been received from any other place. Horse bones have also been received from here. In many respects this place resembles Harappa.

Kotadiji

In Sindh region, this site was identified by Dhurre in 1935. In 1955, F. A. Khan started excavation work. The sixteen levels obtained from here are associated with two cultures. The three levels obtained from here are from Harappan period, one is from transition period and twelve levels are associated with before Harappan era. It has been developed as a local culture. Evidence of the protection wall of raw bricks has been obtained outside the settlement here. Like Kalibanga, the fall of Kodiji's pre-Harappan culture was due to the fierce fire.


Gray Ware Culture - 

Ganga Yamuna Doab gives us evidence of Gray Ware culture. Its period dates were determined from 2000 to 1500 BC . In Gray Ware culture house was made by gallop and clay was pargeting on it. The floor was made by soil. The fall of this culture is probably due to the flood.

                    Ganga Yamuna Doab and in Western Uttar Pradesh the first evidence of the Gray Ware Culture  has been received from Rajpur Parsa near Risoli and Bijnaur near Badayun in 1950 AD. So far, 110 sites have come to light. After the expiration of the Gray Ware Culture in Alamgirpur, Hastinapur and Ahikshitra, emptiness came to some extent and then the further developed Gray Painted Ware Culture has been developed; Whereas from Atranjikheda receives the evidence that during the period between the Gray Ware culture and the painted gray ware culture, Black and Red ware culture was also exist.

Black And Red Ware Culture

First evidence of black and red ware culture was obtained from the site of Atranjikheda in 1960 AD. Thereafter, evidence of this culture has been received from Jodhpura and Noah. The distinctive characteristic of black and red ware culture is that the inner part of the vessel and the outside edges in black and the remaining vessel is painted with red color. Proof of Black and Red Ware Culture is obtained after the Gray Ware Culture from Atranjkheda.

The Painted Gray Ware Culture-

Initial evidence of painted gray ware has been obtained from Ahikshitra in 1946 AD. A total of 750 sites of painted gray ware culture have come to light, but 30 sites have been excavated. Four of these places are such as: Bhagwanpura, Dhandari, Nagar and Katapalan, who get evidence of Painted Gray ware culture, yet they are considered to be the extension of the later Harappan. Iron tools are not available here.

            The largest site related to painted gray ware culture is Bukhari received from Haryana. In the painted gray ware culture, house was made by gallop and clay was pargeting on it.  Iron tools have been found in the sites obtained from Ganga Yamuna Doab area. Evidence of iron devices is not available only from Hastinapur. In farming (agricultural) equipments, iron has been found in Zakhera and spade. After digging, there is evidence of wheat and barley from Atranjikheda and rice from Hastinapur.

North black-polished ware-

Its initial evidence was obtained from Takshshila in 1930 AD. So far 1500 sites have come to light. 74 sites have been excavated. The levels of northern black-polished ware culture have been found somewhere above the gray painted ware, where they have been found on black and red potteries. It is essentially attached to iron. In the meantime, it has become attached in the use of second urbanization, paved bricks and currency.


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